Saturday, February 4, 2012

Gasoline Prices in ASEAN Contries

Saturday, February 4, 2012
Energy resources in ASEAN member states as a whole are rich but unevenly distributed.  For instance, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei export crude oil, but the others have to import oil products and/or crude oil.  Renewable such as hydroelectricity and solar energy while abundant are seriously underdeveloped due to a lack of technology and funding.

As the main form of fossil fuel energy, oil takes on an important role in the energy consumption of ASEAN countries.  Crude oil has been discovered in some of asian countries; however they lack sufficient refining capacities and therefore have to cooperate with foreign companies for oil refining.  For instance, Royal Dutch Shell owns the sole refinery in Brunei, while many foreign oil refineries can be found in Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia.

Proven oil reserves are mainly found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. Indonesia‟s oil production exceeds the rest, but its output is 1071 thousand barrels per day (Tbbl/d), lower than the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries‟ (OPEC) production quota  of  1400 Tbbl/d.  Compared with its low proven reserves, Thailand has relatively high oil production.  Vietnam‟s production meets 80 per cent ofits domestic demand.  Before the first refinery started production in February 2009, it had to import crude oil and oil production technology.  Indonesia consumes most of its own crude oil, but its refining capacity is unable to meet domestic demand.  Malaysia exports a small proportion of crude oil and oil production.  Thailand‟s refineries obtain40 per cent of their crude oil locally, and this meets 40 per cent of the domestic demand. Singapore is the Southeast Asian Energy hub.  36 per cent of its oil production goesabroad, though it does not produce crude oil.  ASEAN countries as a whole produce a total of 2692  Tbbl/d, or 98.26 million barrels per year.  It implies that the Reserves-to-production ratio (R/P) is 1363 years in this region.  Hence, it is possible for the bloc to sharply increase  the supply  of crude oil  in  the region by  increasing production.

Natural gas
More and more countries in the world are focusing on increasing the usage of natural gas  because natural gas produces more calorific value and less greenhouse gases than oil and coal.  In addition, proven natural gas reserves are much higher than oil.  Among ASEAN countries, Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei are exporters of natural gas.  Further exploration may dramatically boost the natural gas 9reserves in this region.  Natural gas will gradually assume a central role in the field of energy cooperation between ASEAN and other countries.

There are recoverable coal reserves in six countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.  Indonesia possesses 70.34 per cent of the coal reserves in this region and Thailand has a 22.01 per cent share.  Vietnam‟s share is only 2.43 per cent with its coal being of the anthracite and bituminous variety.Two-thirds of the coal reserves in Indonesia are located on Sumatra Island with the remaining found on the islands of Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi. Coal production increased  by  68 per cent between 2000 and  2004. A new coal policy to further promote the utilization of coal was instituted in 2004 to limited effect.

Here are the Asian countries with the cheapest gas prices in the world.
1. United Arab Emirates
Gas prices: U.S. $ 1.78 per gallon (equivalent Rp4.238 per liter).
Members of OPEC.
Condition countries: the UAE which includes Dubai and Abu Dhabi, it is still in stable condition, although many of its neighbors, particularly from the Middle East that experienced instability in the country.
2. Brunei Darus salam
Gas prices: U.S. $ 1.47 per gallon (equivalent Rp3.500 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Recent Condition: Brunei has been known for one of its largest oil company, Brunei Shell Petroleum Co. This company has just raised the highest crude oil prices over 31 months.
3. Yemen
Gas prices: U.S. $ 1.32 per gallon (equivalent Rp3.142 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Recent Condition: Yemen is currently in the political conditions began to unstable. Currently, the President of Yemen is estimated to gain political immunity.
4. Oman
Gas prices: U.S. $ 1.17 per gallon (equivalent Rp2.785 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Recent Condition: Oman are now beginning to hit the limited demonstrations since the instability in the Middle East.
5. Kuwait
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.87 per gallon (equivalent Rp2.071 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Current condition: Kuwait showed the protests become more limited and weaker. Kuwait is also accused of supporting the insurgency action in Libya.
6. Turkmenistan
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.83 per gallon (equivalent Rp1.976 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Recent Condition: Turkmenistan is to establish a cooperative agreement with Iran to build a pipeline project.
7. Bahrain
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.79 per gallon (equivalent Rp1.880 per liter).
Not a member of OPEC.
Recent Condition: Bahrain has experienced protests with violence and have been muted by the action of reducing his army. Bahrain country’s leaders even had expelled several Iranian diplomats.
8. Qatar
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.72 per gallon (equivalent Rp1.714 per liter).
Members of OPEC.
Current state: So far, Qatar sells natural gas to the UK in significant quantities. In addition, Asian countries are supporting the Spanish economy by investing in banking and other companies.
9. Saudi Arabia
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.61 per gallon (equivalent Rp1.452 per liter).
Members of OPEC.
Current condition: official at an oil field of Saudi Arabia worried about rising crude oil prices and consequently on the global economy.
10. Iran
Gas prices: U.S. $ 0.37 per gallon (equivalent to Rp880 per liter).
Members of OPEC.
Current condition: the current Iranian government budget set the price of crude oil at the level of U.S. $ 80 per barrel or lower than the global oil market conditions.

*This data comes from studies carried out research institute Gesellschaft für Deutsche Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), starting from November 2010.


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